Top Blown Rotary Converter (TBRC)

The TBRC is a pyro-metallurgical furnace which has many applications and was first introduced as the ‘Kaldo Converter’ in the steel industry. The technology was then adopted by the Copper and Nickel industry, and is now a mainstream technology for the recovery, upgrade and refinement of Precious Metals and is used widely for;

  • Treatment of copper smelter anode slimes to recover precious metal content.
  • Upgrade of Platinum Group Metal (PGMs) Matte feeds from an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) either from primary platinum mining or from autocatalytic converter recycling.
  • Treatment of Miller Chloride feeds from gold refineries to recover precious metal content.
  • Pyromet upgrade of Silver from industrial and commercial recycling, by-products and sweeps.


Dependent on the process the TBRC will be used typically in a cycle of;

  • Batch or continuous feeding
  • Reductive smelting or neutral melting
  • Pouring Slag
  • Fuming
  • Conversion
  • Oxidative Refining
  • Metal Tapping


The features and benefits of a TBRC are;

  • Employs an oxy-fuel combustion lance, using either Natural Gas or Propane for intensification of process and vastly reduced process gas emissions in comparison with air aspirated.
  • Employs a separate metallurgical oxygen (metox) lance for a controlled high velocity delivery of oxygen for the conversion, fuming and oxidative refining cycles.
  • Inclined angle, typically 25° for firing and metallurgical oxygen blowing.
  • Up to 240° pivot tilting for movement of port to feeding, firing and pouring stations.
  • Rapid rotation, typically 0-40 RPM, to mix reagents with melt during smelting phases, and then higher speeds to disperse slag and expose metal for oxidation stages.


Pilot & Small Production Scale Hydraulic TBRC (50 to 100L working capacity)

We off a 50L to 100L working capacity hydraulic TBRC which are skid mounted and have the following features which are suited to pilot operations or for smaller scale production;

  • Compact and entirely mounted on a skid, including enclosure, access platform, control panel, burner valve train, hydraulic powerpack. Skid dimensions are 4.3m long x 2.3m wide (14’ x7.5’) . Assembled height with hoods and ducts is 3.5m high (11.5’). This means that the entire assembly can be transported in a 20ft open top container, entirely assembled for plug-in modular installation vastly reducing infrastructure costs.
  • Hydraulic gimbal pivot tilting operation to allow for top loading (vessel in horizontal position), firing at an infinitely variable angle between 10 and 25° to allow opening of the surface area for exposure to combustion flame and metallurgical oxygen.
  • Hydraulic cantilever pivot for precision pouring. This feature is not available on any other TBRC.
  • Oxy-Fuel burner and on-board gas handling valve service train. Integrated metallurgical oxygen, pilot flame and auto-fuel switch to allow the burner to move seamlessly from oxygen to air aspiration for overnight holding flame or curing flame. All within a single burner device.
  • On-board control panel with boom mounted operator control pad for TBRC operation and central HMI (touchscreen) for burner turn-down and stoichiometric control.
  • Rotation speed infinitely variable 0-15 RPM.
  • Comes with refractory installation to be installed and cured in-situ.


Production Scale JWT Licensed TBRC (150 to 1500L working capacity)

Inprotec Ltd are the only licensed manufacturer of the JW Technologies (formerly Tolltrek international) TBRC. This configuration is recommended for larger scale operations requiring 150L working capacity up to 1500L. Features of this TBRC are;

  • Custom geared for positive drive on the reaction vessel giving rotation infinitely variable from 0 to 40 RPM.
  • Custom geared for 240° arc of central pivot from complete ‘front to back’ operation for firing, feeding and pouring. This ensures that the furnace room plant space can be optimised for the peripheral plant, enclosures, access platforms and off-gas & hygiene ductwork required to operate the TBRC at this scale.
  • Retractable oxy-fuel Combustion Lance and service train with integrated fibre optic flame detection to ensure that the flame distance, intensity and stoichiometry can be closely controlled in relation to the charge and cycle.
  • Retractable separate Metallurgical Oxygen Lance which is capable of extremely close to melt surface blowing at high velocity or submerged blowing if required to further increase oxygen efficiency.
  • Retractable exhaust flue and burner assembly to allow for TBRC tilt movement and maintenance.